DEFINITION OF PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma are usually derived from an infection. (Price, 1995)
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma, distal to the terminal bronchioles including respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, and cause consolidation of lung tissue and cause local disruption of gas exchange. (Zul, 2001)
Bronchopneumonia is used to describe pneumonia that has spread pattern mottled, irregular in one or more localized areas within the bronchi and extends into the adjacent lung parenchyma in the vicinity. In bronchopneumonia occurred consolidation stained area. (Smeltzer, 2001).
ETIOLOGY OF PNEUMONIA
Bacterial pneumonia is usually found in old age. Organisms such as gram posifif: Steptococcus pneumonia, S. aerous, and streptococcus pyogenesis. Gram-negative bacteria such as Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella pneumonia and P. Aeruginosa.
Caused by influenza viruses that spread through droplet transmission. Cytomegalovirus in this case known as the leading cause of viral pneumonia.
Infections caused by fungi such as histoplasmosis spread through inhalation of air containing spores and are commonly found in bird feces, soil and compost.
Cause the occurrence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (CPC). Usually affects patients who have immunosupresi. (Reeves, 2001)
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF PNEUMONIA
Clinical manifestations of bronchopneumonia are among others:
1. DifficPlty and pain when breathing
- pleuritic pain
- Shallow breathing and snoring
2. Breath sounds over the area that had a late consolidation
- Decreases, then disappears
- Cracels, rhonchi, egofoni
3. Chest movement is not symmetrical
4. Chills and fever 38.8 ° C to 41.1 ° C, delirium
8. Thick cough, productive
- Greenish yellow sputum then turns into a reddish or rusty
- Area sirkumoral
- Bluish nail beds
11. Psychosocial problems: disorientation, anxiety, fear of dying
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Increased Body Temperature
- Risk for Infection
- Activity Intolerance
- Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements