Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesn’t produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Insulin is needed to turn sugar and other food into energy.
Many doctors and researching call the rise in diabetes cases an epidemic of the world. Constant research is being performed to seek out new person with diabetes treatments to control blood sugar and reduce the health related side effects associated with the condition.
There is no known cause for the onset of diabetes. However, there are certain factors that place a person at higher risk of contracting diabetes.
The risk factors of diabetes can include:
- A family history of diabetes
- Poor diet
- Physical inactivity
Three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (occurring during pregnancy), which have similar signs, symptoms, and consequences, but different causes and population distributions. Ultimately, all forms are due to the beta cells of the pancreas being unable to produce sufficient insulin to prevent hyperglycemia. Type 1 is usually due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells which produce insulin. Type 2 is characterized by tissue-wide insulin resistance and varies widely; it sometimes progresses to loss of beta cell function. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes, in that it involves insulin resistance; the hormones of pregnancy cause insulin resistance in those women genetically predisposed to developing this condition.
Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes
- Impaired Skin Integrity
- Impaired Physical Mobility
- Pain (Acute / Chronic)
- Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements
- Risk for Infection
- Disturbed Sleep pattern
- Impaired Physical Mobilization
- Knowledge deficient