Type 1 diabetes usually is first diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that may be caused by genetic, environmental, or other factors. It accounts for about 5% of diabetes cases. There is no known way to prevent it, and effective treatment requires the use of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%–95% of diabetes cases and is usually associated with older age, obesity and physical inactivity, family history of type 2 diabetes, or a personal history of gestational diabetes. Diabetes rates vary by race and ethnicity, with American Indian, Alaska Native, African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander adults about twice as likely as white adults to have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented through healthy food choices, physical activity, and weight loss. It can be controlled with these same activities, but insulin or oral medication also may be necessary.
- Deficient Fluid Volume related to osmotic diuresisGoal :
Liquid or hydration needs of patients are metExpected Results :
Patients showed an adequate hydration evidenced by stable vital signs, palpable peripheral pulse, skin turgor and capillary filling good, right individual urine elimination and electrolyte levels within normal limits.Nursing Intervention :
- Monitor vital signs, note the change ortostatik vital signs
- Monitor the breathing pattern as the respiratory kusmaul
- Review the frequency and quality of breathing, use of aids breathing muscles
- Review the peripheral pulse, capillary filling, skin turgor and mucous membranes
- Monitor intake and expenditure
- Maintain fluid to provide at least 2500 ml / day within tolerable limits heart
- Note things such as nausea, vomiting and distension of the stomach.
- Observations of increased fatigue, edema, irregular pulse
- Collaboration: give normal fluid therapy with or without copy dextrosa, monitor laboratory examination (Ht, BUN, Na, K).
- Impaired Skin Integrity reated to changes in metabolic status (peripheral neuropathy).Goal :
The integrity of skin disorders can be reduced or showed healing.Expected Results :
Wound condition showed improvement and non-infected tissueNursing Intervention :
- Review the wound, the epitelisasi, color changes, edema, and discharge, the frequency of dressing change.
- Review of vital signs
- Review of pain
- Perform wound care
- Collaboration delivery of insulin and medication.
- Collaboration antibiotics as indicated.
- Risk for injury related to decreased visual functionGoal :
Patients do not experience injuryExpected Results :
Patients can meet their needs without experiencing injuryIntervention :
- Avoid slippery floors.
- Use a low bed.
- Orient clients to the room.
- Help clients in daily activities
- Help patients in ambulasi or change positions.
- Imbalanced Nutrition : Less Than Body Requirements related to reduction oral input, anorexia, nausea, increased metabolism of proteins, fats.Goal :
The patient’s nutritional needs are metExpected Results :
Patients can digest the amount of calories or the right nutrients
Stable weight or additions to the range typically
Nursing Intervention :
- Measure your weight every day, or according to the indication.
- Determine the diet and eating patterns of patients and compare it with food that can be spent on patients.
- Auscultation bowel sounds, noted the existence of abdominal pain / abdominal bloating, nausea, vomit food that has not had time to digest, maintain a state of fasting according to the indication.
- Provide a liquid diet containing foods (nutrients) and the electrolyte immediately if the patient is able to tolerate the oral.
- Involve the patient’s family at this meal digestion according to the indication.
- Observe the signs of hypoglycemia such as changes in level of consciousness, skin moist / cold, rapid pulse, hunger, sensitive stimuli, anxiety, headaches.
- Collaboration blood sugar checks.
- Collaboration delivery of insulin treatment.
- Collaboration with dieticians.