Diabetes is a disease in which the body has a shortage of insulin, a decreased ability to use insulin, or both. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose (sugar) to enter cells and be converted to energy. When diabetes is not controlled, glucose and fats remain in the blood and, over time, damage vital organs.
Type 1 diabetes usually is first diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that may be caused by genetic, environmental, or other factors. It accounts for about 5% of diabetes cases. There is no known way to prevent it, and effective treatment requires the use of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%–95% of diabetes cases and is usually associated with older age, obesity and physical inactivity, family history of type 2 diabetes, or a personal history of gestational diabetes. Diabetes rates vary by race and ethnicity, with American Indian, Alaska Native, African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander adults about twice as likely as white adults to have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented through healthy food choices, physical activity, and weight loss. It can be controlled with these same activities, but insulin or oral medication also may be necessary.
Nursing Interventions for Diabetes
- Deficient Fluid Volume related to osmotic diuresisGoal :
Liquid or hydration needs of patients are metExpected Results :
Patients showed an adequate hydration evidenced by stable vital signs, palpable peripheral pulse, skin turgor and capillary filling good, right individual urine elimination and electrolyte levels within normal limits.Nursing Intervention :
- Monitor vital signs, note the change ortostatik vital signs
- Monitor the breathing pattern as the respiratory kusmaul
- Review the frequency and quality of breathing, use of aids breathing muscles
- Review the peripheral pulse, capillary filling, skin turgor and mucous membranes
- Monitor intake and expenditure
- Maintain fluid to provide at least 2500 ml / day within tolerable limits heart
- Note things such as nausea, vomiting and distension of the stomach.
- Observations of increased fatigue, edema, irregular pulse
- Collaboration: give normal fluid therapy with or without copy dextrosa, monitor laboratory examination (Ht, BUN, Na, K).
- Impaired Skin Integrity reated to changes in metabolic status (peripheral neuropathy).Goal :
The integrity of skin disorders can be reduced or showed healing.Expected Results :
Wound condition showed improvement and non-infected tissueNursing Intervention :
- Review the wound, the epitelisasi, color changes, edema, and discharge, the frequency of dressing change.
- Review of vital signs
- Review of pain
- Perform wound care
- Collaboration delivery of insulin and medication.
- Collaboration antibiotics as indicated.
- Risk for injury related to decreased visual functionGoal :
Patients do not experience injuryExpected Results :
Patients can meet their needs without experiencing injuryIntervention :
- Avoid slippery floors.
- Use a low bed.
- Orient clients to the room.
- Help clients in daily activities
- Help patients in ambulasi or change positions.
- Imbalanced Nutrition : Less Than Body Requirements related to reduction oral input, anorexia, nausea, increased metabolism of proteins, fats.Goal :
The patient’s nutritional needs are metExpected Results :
Patients can digest the amount of calories or the right nutrients
Stable weight or additions to the range typically
Nursing Intervention :
- Measure your weight every day, or according to the indication.
- Determine the diet and eating patterns of patients and compare it with food that can be spent on patients.
- Auscultation bowel sounds, noted the existence of abdominal pain / abdominal bloating, nausea, vomit food that has not had time to digest, maintain a state of fasting according to the indication.
- Provide a liquid diet containing foods (nutrients) and the electrolyte immediately if the patient is able to tolerate the oral.
- Involve the patient’s family at this meal digestion according to the indication.
- Observe the signs of hypoglycemia such as changes in level of consciousness, skin moist / cold, rapid pulse, hunger, sensitive stimuli, anxiety, headaches.
- Collaboration blood sugar checks.
- Collaboration delivery of insulin treatment.
- Collaboration with dieticians.